【完形填空】本文主要讲了英国政府即将出台一项新的措施,旨在限制媒体向案件中的证人行贿,从而依靠法律程序来杜绝美图在案件公开审理前过多披露或炒作造成对司法(judicature)判决客观与公正性的干扰。disturbance:干扰;打扰the government is to ban payments to witnesses by newspapers seeking to buy up people involved in prominent cases 31(such as) the trial of rosemary west. 【witness:证人】 【trial:审讯 审判】【prominent cases:重要的案件】in a significant (tightening) of legal controls over the press, lord irvine, the lord chancellor, will introduce a (draft) bill that will propose making payments to witnesses 34(illegal) and will strictly control the amount of (publicity)that can be given to a case 36(before) a trial begins. 为了对新闻界的合法监控,而提出的一项法案的草案,该法案提议:把报界给证人的报酬定位非法,并且要严格控制该案件的公开程度,在该案件审理之前。in a letter to gerald kaufman, chairman of the house of commons media select committee, lord irvine said he (agreed) with a committee report this year which said that self regulation did not offer sufficient control. (publication) of the letter came two days after lord irvine caused a 40storm of media protest when he said the (interpretation) of privacy controls contained in european legislation would be left to judges (rather than) to parliament(过国会). interpretation:解释权对欧洲立法中所包含的有关个人隐私监控的解释权在法官,而不在议会the lord chancellor said introduction of the human rights bill, which 43(makes) the european convention on human rights legally 44(binding) in britain, laid down that everybody was 45 to privacy and that public figures could go to court to protect themselves and their families. introduction human rights bill 人权法案“press freedoms will be in safe hands(with) our british judges," he said. witness payments became an issure after west was sentenced to 10 life sentences in 1995. up to 19 witnesses were 48(sai
d) to have received payments for telling their stories to newspapers. conerns were raised 49(that) witnesses might be encouraged to exaggerate their stories in court to ensure guilty verdicts.confide【吐露心声 把……告知某人 信任某人】diffident 缺乏自信的 自卑的issure指有争议的话题 问题ensure 以 ……确保binding 有约束力的 be bound to sth 有义务干某事 be bound up with 与……有密切关系entitle:给……权利,给……资格entitlement:应得的权利 津贴 补贴 be entitled to 有……资格 entitled sb to do sth 给予某人干某事的权利verdict (陪审团的)裁决 判决———————————————————————————————————————————————passage 1 specialisation [spe??l?’ze???n]can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of scientific knowledge. by splitting up the subject matter into smaller units, one man could continue to handle the information and use it as the basis for further research. but specialisation was only one of a series of related developments in science affecting the process of communication. another was the growing professionalisation of scientific activity. professionalisation [?[pr??fe??n?la?z’e??n] 职业化 专业化no clear cut distinction can be drawn between professionals and amateurs in science exceptions can be found to any rule. neverthelss, the word `amateur’ does carry a (connotation [?kɑ:n??te??n] 内涵,含义;言外之意)that the person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not fully share its values. clear-cut 清晰的 connotation [?kɑ:n??te??n] 内涵,含义;言外之意amateurs 业余爱好者neverthelss 然而 尽管如此concerned 有关(方面),被牵连的;担心的,烦恼的;关心政治的,关心社会的 在科学领域,职业研究人员与业余研究人员之间并没有明确的分界线 ,exceptions can be found to any rule 任何规则都有例外,但是“业余”这个词的确有特殊的含义,即相关人员没有充分融入科学界,尤其在价值观念上,他可能并不完全认同这个群体的价值观。the growth of specialisation in the nineteenth century, with its consequent requirement of a longer, more complex training, implied greater problems for amateur participation in science. the trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the united kingdom. consequent随之而来的十九世纪的专业化的发展,随之而来的要求相关人员接受长期而复杂的专业训练,给从事可言的业余人员带来了更多的问题。a comparison of british geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper. thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their own right; but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture. amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue local studies in the old way. comparison [k?m?p?r?s?n] primacy 第一;至高无上overall 总的 全部的 the overall resultthe overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widesprad introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century. overall 总的 全部的 the overall result 总的结果就是widesprad 广泛的introduction 介绍;引言,导言;采用,引进;新采用的东西 【这里指的是引进】refereeing 审稿工作 (仲裁)其总的结果就是,业余人员的论文很难在专业地质学 学刊上发表,而全面引进审稿制度使论文的发表难度进一步增大,这个审稿制度首先在19世纪由全国学刊采用,随后在20世纪又被几家地质学引用。as a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership. a rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, where as the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way. 很自然,其结果就是,出现了面对不同读者的不同学刊,要么针对专业人员,要么针对业余研究人员。地质学研究人员中也发生着类似的分化现象,这使得专业地质人员逐渐形成了一两个全国性的协会,而业余科技人员要么留着地方性协会中,要么以不同的方式组成全国性协会。although the process of professionalisation and specialisation was already well under way in british geology during the nineteenth century, its full consequences were thus delayed until the twentieth century. in science generally, however, the nineteenth century must be reckoned as the crucial period for this change in the structure of science. 尽管职业化、专业化在十九世纪的英国地质界得到迅速发展,然而其全部效应直到二十世纪才充分显示出来。但是总体的科学研究而言,十九世纪应被认为是科研结构passage 2 a great deal of attention is being paid today to the socalled digital divide — the division of the world into the info(information) rich and the info poor. and that divide does exist today. my wife and i lectured about this looming danger twenty years ago. what was less visible then, however, were the new, positive forces that work against the digital divide. there are reasons to be optimistic. divide:分水岭 鸿沟lecture v﹠n 演讲 讲座;训斥 教训 give sb a lecture= 训斥某人looming(loom)v﹠n :1.织布机 2.即将到来digital divide:数字化鸿沟there are technological reasons to hope the digital divide will narrow. as the internet becomes more and more commercialized, it is in the interest of business to universalize access — after all, the more people online, the more potential customers there are. more and more governments, afraid their countries will be left behind, want to spread internet access. within the next decade or two, one to two billion people on the planet will be netted together. as a result, i now believe the digital divide will narrow rather than widen in the years ahead. and that is very good news because the internet may well be the most powerful tool for combating world poverty that we’ve ever had. combat v﹠n. 当名词将就是两个意思:一个是搏斗 ,另一个是竞争 比赛;当动词讲与……竞争,还有一个是防止,减轻poverty 贫穷of course, the use of the internet isn’t the only way to defeat poverty. and the internet is not the only tool we have. but it has enormous potential.to take advantage of this tool, some impoverished countries will have to getover their outdated anticolonial prejudices with respect to foreign investment. countries that still think foreign investment is an invasion of their sovereignty might well study the history of infrastructure (the basic structural foundations of a society) in the united states. when the united states built its industrials infrastructure, it didn’t have the capital to do so. and that is why america’s second wave infrastructure — including roads, barbors, highways, prots and so on — were built with foreign investment. the english, the germans, the dutch and the french were investing in britain’s former colony. they financed them. immigrant americans built them. guess who owns them now? the americans. i believe the same thing would be true in places like brazil or anywhere else for that matter. the more foreign capital you have helping you build your third wave infrastructure, which today is an electronic infrastructure, the better off you’re going to be. that doesn’t mean lying down and becoming fooled, or letting foreign corporations run uncontrolled. but it does means recognizing how important they can be in building the energy and telecom infrastructures needed to take full advantage of the internet. with respect to 关于 至于 谈到()impoverished 穷困的,无力的,用尽了的infrastructure 基础设施i believe the same thing would be true in places like brazil or anywhere else for that matter(写作的句子)lie down 屈从 we have no intention of lying down under these absurd allegations.wipe out 除去 消灭55.digital divide is something ____c___ . [a]getting worse because of the internet [b]the rich countries are responsible for [c]the world must guard against [d]considered positive today 56.governments attach importance to the internet because it _______ . [a]offers economic potentials [b]can bring foreign funds [c]can soon wipe out world poverty [d]connects people all over the world 57.the writer mentioned the case of the united states to justify the policy of _______ . [a]providing financial support overseas [b]preventing foreign capital’s control [c]building industrial infrastructure [d]accepting foreign investment 58.it seems that now a country’s economy depends much on _______ . [a]how welldeveloped it is electronically [b]whether it is prejudiced against immigrants [c]whether it adopts america’s industrial pattern [d]how much control it has over foreign corporations passage3why do so many americans distrust what they read in their newspapers? the american society of newspaper editors is trying to answer this painful question. the organization is deep into a long selfanalysis known as the journalism credibility project. journalism 新闻 新闻业credibility 可靠性 可信性 ([?kr?d??b?l?ti] 重音在后 不确定的话词霸一下) painful question 令人头疼的问题该组织正深入进行一次长期的自我剖析式的调查,即新闻可信度调查项目(known as 翻译为 即)sad to say, this project has turned out to be mostly lowlevel findings about factual errors and spelling and grammar mistakes, combined with lots of heads cratching puzzlement about what in the world those readers really want. sad to say 遗憾的是factual errors 与事实有出入(报道的真实性有问题)factual 事实的 真实的in the world adv 究竟cratching (疾病)有传染性的,容易传染的(情感等)有感染力的,感染性强的head-scratching 令人为难的scrath v 给…搔痒;给…挠痒 from scratch 从零开始;从头做起;白手起家 if you do something from scratch, you do it without making use of anything that has been done beforebut the sources of distrust go way deeper. most jounalists learn to see the world through a set of standard templates (patterns) into which they plug each day’s events. in other words, there is a conventional story line in the newsroom culture that provides a backbone and a ready made narrative structure for otherwise confusing news. way 这里是当副词讲:远远地,大大地template n.模板 样板plug 插入 插座backbone 脊梁骨 中坚力量 骨气story line 故事的情节narrative 叙述的 confusing 令人困惑的 乱七八糟的但是,对媒体的这种不信任远远有更深的缘由,多数新闻记者学会用一套标准模式去看世界,并把每天发生的事件纳入这种模式,———换言之,新闻编辑室文化中有一套约定俗成的编写模式,这为那些乱起八糟的新闻提供了一个主干架和一个现成的故事叙述结构。there exists a social and cultural disconnect between journalists and their readers, which helps explain why the “standard templates" of the newsroom seem alien to many readers. in a recent survey, questionnaires were sent to reportersin five middlesize cities around the country, plus one large metropolitan area. then residents in these communities were phoned at random and asked the same questions. questionnaire 调查问卷metropolitan 大都市的replies show that compared with other americans, journalists are more likely to live in upscale neighborhoods, have maids, own mercedeses, and trade stocks,and they’re less likely to go to church, do volunteer work, or put down roots in a coummunity.(也不会扎根于社区) reporters tend to be part of a broadly defined social and cultural elite, so their work tends to reflect the conventional values of this elite. the astonishing distrust of the news media isn’t rooted in inaccuracy or poor reportorials skills but in the daily clash of world views between reporters and their readers. maid 女佣astonishing 惊讶的reportorials 记者的世界观发生碰撞(clash)this is an explosive situation for any industry, particularly a declining one. here is a troubled business that keeps hiring employees whose attitudes vastly annoy the customers. then it sponsors lots of symposiums and a credibility project dedicated to wondering why customers are annoyed and fleeing in large numbers. but it never seems to get around to noticing the cultural and class biases that so many former buyers are complaining about. if it did, it would open up its diversity program, now focused narrowly on race and gender, and look for reporters who differ broadly by outlook, values, education, and class. explosive 爆炸的 易爆炸的 一触即发的sponsors 赞助symposiums 座谈会 专题讨论会dedicate59 what is the passage mainly about? [a]needs of the readers all over the world [b]causes of the public disappointment about newspapers [c]origins of the declining newspaper industry [d]aims of a journalism credibility project 60.the results of the journalism credibility project turned out to be _______ . [a]quite trustworthy [b]somewhat contradictory [c]very illuminating [d]rather superficial 61.the basic problem of journalists as pointed out by the writer lies in their _______ . [a]working attitude [b]conventional lifestyle [c]world outlook [d]educational background 62.despite its efforts, the newspaper industry still cannot satisfy the readers owing to its _______ . [a]failure to realize its real problem [b]tendency to hire annoying reporters [c]likeliness to do inaccurate reporting [d]prejudice in matters of race and gender passage 4 the world is going through the biggest wave of mergers and acquisitions ever witnessed. the process sweeps from hyperactive america to europe and reaches the emerging countries with unsurpassed might. many in these countries are looking at this process and worrying:“won’t the wave of business concentration turn into an uncontrollable anti-competitive force?" anti-competitive force反竞争的力量there’s no question that the big are getting bigger and more powerful. multinational corporations accounted for less than 20% of international trade in 1982. today the figure is more than 25% and growing rapidly. international affiliates account for afastgrowing segment of production in economies that open up and welcome foreign investment. in argentina, for instance, after the reforms of the early 1990s, multinationals went from 43% to almost 70% of the industrial production of the 200 largest firms. this phenomenon has created serious concerns over the role of smaller economic firms, of national businessmen and over the ultimate stability of the world economy. multinational 跨国公司affiliate 附属企业i believe that the most important forces behind the massive m&a wave are the same that underlie the globalization process: falling transportation and communication costs, lower trade and investment barriers and enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting customers’ demands. all these are beneficial, not detrimental, to consumers. as productivity grows, the world’s wealth increases. detrimental 不利的 有害的enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting customers’ demands扩大的市场,市场扩大需要生产也扩大capable of 翻译成“能”能满足顾客需要的扩大生产examples of benefits or costs of the current concentration wave are scanty. yet it is hard to imagine that the merger of a few oil firms today could recreate the same threats to competition that were feared nearly a century ago in the u.s., when the standard oil trust was broken up. the mergers of telecom companies, such as world com, hardly seem to bring higher prices for consumers or a reduction in the pace of technical progress. on the contrary, the price of communications is coming down fast. in cars, too, concentration is increasing — witness daimler and chrysler, renault and nissan — but it does not appear that consumers are being hurt. scanty 不足的 wave 浪潮current 目前 现在的examples are scanty (主干)例子不多 (什么样的)例子不多imagine v 想象in the pace ofyet the fact remains that the merger movement must be watched. a few weeks ago, alan greenspan warned against the megamergers in the banking industry. who is going to supervise, regulate and operate as lender of last resort with the gigantic banks that are being created? won’t multinationals shift production from one place to another when a nation gets too strict about infringements to fair competition? and should one country take upon itself the role of “defending competition" on issues that affect many other nations, as in the u.s. vs. microsoft case? infringements 违反 nwho is going to supervise, regulate and operate as lender of last resort 【with the gigantic banks that are being created? 】last resort 最后的解决方法take upon 承担,接受(尤指艰巨工作或重大责任)as 这里当介词用 lender 贷款方谁将作为最后解决问题的贷款方来对合并出现后的银行进行监督、调控、运营?operate运营 操作 regulate调控63.what is the typical trend of businesses today? ___c___[a]to take in more foreign funds [b]to invest more abroad [c]to combine and become bigger [d]to trade with more countries 64.according to the author, one of the driving forces behind m&a wave is _______ . [a]the greater customer demands [b]a surplus supply for the market [c]a growing productivity [d]the increase of the world’s wealth 65.from paragraph 4 we can infer that _______ . [a]the increasing concentration is certain to hurt consumers [b]worldcom serves as a good example of both benefits and costs [c]the costs of the gobalization process are enormous [d]the standard oil trust might have threatened competition 66.toward the new business wave, the writer’s attitude can be said to be _______ . [a]optimistic [b]objective [c]pessimistic [d]biased passage 5 when i decided to quit my full time employment it never occurred to me that i might become a part of a new international trend. a lateral move that hurt my pride and blocked my professional progress prompted me to abandon my relatively high profile career although, in the manner of a disgraced government minister, i covered my exit by claiming “i wanted to spend more time with my family". lateral 平行的 横向的profile 外轮廓 high-profiledisgrace 丢脸 disgraced 丢脸的一次平级人事调动伤害我的自尊,并阻断了我的事业发展,这促使我放弃自己地位较高的职业。当然,就像面子扫尽的政府部长那样,我也掩饰说“我只想与家人更多的呆在一起”curiously, some twoandahalf years and two novels later, my experiment in what the americans term “downshifting" has turned my tired excuse into an absolute reality. i have been transformed from a passionate advocate of the philosophy of “have it all", preached by linda kelsey for the past seven years in the pages of she magazine, into a woman who is happy to settle for a bit of everything. passionate 充满激情的 热烈的 拥有一切的生活哲学 ::“the philosophy of have it all ”preach 布道 讲到 宣传 说教settle for 满足于 settle for a bit of everythinga bit of everythingi have discovered, as perhaps kelsey will after her muchpublicized resignation from the editorship of she after a buildup of stress, that abandoning the doctrine of “juggling your life", and making the alternative move into “downshifting” brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status. nothing could persuade me to return to the kind of life kelsey used to advocate and i once enjoyed: 12-hour working days, pressured deadlines, the fearful strain of office politics and the limitations of being a parent on “quality time”. resignation 辞职 [z]editorship 编辑职位 编辑工作publicized [?p?bl??sa?zd] 注意其读音in america, the move away from juggling to a simpler, less materialistic lifestyle is a-well-established trend. downshifting — also known in america as “voluntary simplicity” — has, ironically, even bred a new area of what might betermed anti-consumerism. there are a number of bestselling downshifting self help books for people who want to simplify their lives; there are newsletters, such as the tightwad gazette, that give hundreds of thousands of americans useful tips on anything from recycling their clingfilm to making their own soap; there are even support groups for those who want to achieve the mid’90s equivalent of dropping out. ironically具有讽刺意味地 挖苦的 [a?’r?n?kl?]equivalent 相等的 同样的 drop out 退出 ;拒绝接受传统规范;离经叛道;摈弃社会习俗;脱离传统社会gazette [ɡ??z?t] 公报 报纸tightwad 吝啬鬼 [ao]consumerism [k?n?su:m?r?z?m] 消费主义clingfilm 保鲜膜 透明薄膜在美国,摆脱忙碌,转而过一种简单、不太物质化的生活已成明显趋势。具有讽刺意味的是“放慢生活节奏”在美国也称“自愿简单化:——甚至孕育了一个崭新的可称之为消费主义的生活方式for the women of my generation who were urged to keep juggling through the ’80s, downshifting in the mid’90s is not so much a search for the mythical good life — growing your own organic vegetables, and risking turning into one — as a personal recognition of your limitations. downshifting 可以理解为“慢生活”recognition 认识limination 局限对我们这一代女性来说整个80年代我们曾忙碌的生活,90年代中期的简化生活与其说是寻求神话般的美好生活——自己种菜并且冒着自己也变成一个单调呆板的人的风险——倒不如说我们都认识到了自身的局限。risk 可以翻译为冒着……的危险not so much…… as…… 与其说 倒不如说 最后一句理解起来有些难度,因为省略的很厉害……67.which of the following is true according to paragraph 1? (b)[a]fulltime employment is a new international trend. [b]the writer was compelled by circumstances to leave her job. [c]“a lateral move" means stepping out of fulltime employment. [d]the writer was only too eager to spend more time with her family. 68.the writer’s experiment shows that downshifting (b). [a]enables her to realize her dream [b]helps her mold a new philosophy of life [c]prompts her to abandon her high social status [d]leads her to accept the doctrine of she magazine 69.“juggling one’s life” probably means living a life characterized by __(b)_____ . [a]nonmaterialistic lifestyle [b]a bit of everything [c]extreme stree [d]anticonsumerism 70.according to the passage, downshifting emerged in the u.s. as a result of _______ . [a]the quick pace of modern life [b]man’s adventurous spirit [c]man’s search for mythical experiences [d]the economic situation

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