2010年考研英语阅读真题(一)Text1——刷题思路缩略图


2010年考研英语阅读真题(一)Text1——刷题思路

2010年考研英语阅读真题(一) text 1——刷题思路
text1探讨英国报纸中艺术评论和报道内容的变化,属于文化类题材,摘自 commentary(《评论杂志》),发表于2007年11月,原文标题为“ the amateur as critic”(《业余评论家》)。全文围绕报纸艺术评论的衰落展开。
一、数一数全文一共由几个段落组成,标上序号,全文有5段。
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二、最后一题,看看是不是中心主旨题:
中心主旨题的标志mainly about /discuss;the best title;the purpose
21. it is indicated in paragraphs 1 and 2 that
22. newspaper reviews in england before world war ii were characterized by
23. which of the following would shaw and newman most probably agree on?
24. what can be learned about cardus according to the last two paragraphs?
25. what would be the best title for the text?
[a] newspapers of the good old days
[b] the lost horizon in newspapers
[c] mournful decline of journalism
[d] prominent critics in memory
文章的最佳标题是什么?
a.往昔美好时代的报纸
b.报纸中消失的视野
c.新闻业令人悲哀的衰落
d.记忆中杰出的评论家
方法一、中心主旨是对全文的概括,从选项中[a] newspapers of the good old days与[b] the lost horizon in newspapers有交集,答案是二选一。a说过去,b说现在,人们说过去是为了说现在的不好,中心主旨在现在,借古讽今,答案是b.
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方法二、从文章的第一段:the most far-reaching has been the inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage. 具深远影响的可能就是其艺术新闻报道在范围和严肃性方面不可逆转的衰退。包含decline的选项有 [c] mournful decline of journalism与[b] the lost horizon in newspapers。其中[c]说的是journalism新闻业。答案可能是b.
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方法三、
【思路】开门见山:文章的中心往往在第一段,有百分之八十的可能。从大概率事件,第一段只有一句话,剔除枝节内容可以很快地判断出文章的中心:the most far-reaching has been the inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage. 具深远影响的可能就是其艺术新闻报道在范围和严肃性方面不可逆转的衰退。包含decline的选项有 [c] mournful decline of journalism与[b] the lost horizon in newspapers。其中[c]说的是journalism新闻业。答案可能是b.
【难点】horizon(欲望、知识或兴趣的)范围,眼界. 眼界喻指“艺术评论”
方法四、
【葵花宝典】
1、考研阅读理解的答案不是选出来的,而是比较出来的;
2、反复强调的是重点,重点是考点
3、审题仔细。
比较法:[a] newspapers of the good old days,我们常常是在喻古讽今,[a]指的是过去。不是中心。
[d] prominent critics in memory在文中没出过。
答案只能是bc,其中[b] the lost horizon in newspapers。
我只能看出是地平线,我将其译成:消失的地平线。至于horizon(欲望、知识或兴趣的)范围,眼界, 眼界喻指“艺术评论”,我看不出来。
[c] mournful decline of journalism,journalism没在一、二段中出现,出现的有newspaper、arts coverage、 arts criticism。只能选b.
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本题型解法:三加一
1、开门见山:文章的中心往往在一段,有百分之八十的可能;抛砖引玉时:中心在第一段的段尾与第二段的段首句。
2、用穿针引线的方法,第一段+各段的中心句(首句)+最后一段的主旨句。
3、最后一段,看看是不是转换话题了。
加一:看看在题干中是否已经泄露秘密。读前四道题中重复的词或许就是中心主旨的主要内容。由题干可以看出这篇文章的中心主旨。
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三、听懂人话(看看题干,审题,看出题老师问了你什么?文章的中心是什么,结构是什么?反复提到的是重点。)
21. it is indicated in paragraphs 1 and 2 that
第一、二段表明
本文的中心是“艺术新闻报道在范围和严肃性方面不可逆转的衰退”,第一、二段表明过去好,现在不好。
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22. newspaper reviews in england before world war ii were characterized by
在第二次世界大战之前,英国报纸评论的特点是
★★be characterized by? …的特点在于,…的特点是;
本文的中心是“艺术新闻报道在范围和严肃性方面不可逆转的衰退”,英国报纸评论的特点是在第二次世界大战之前是好的,现在衰退了。
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23. which of the following would shaw and newman most probably agree on?
萧伯纳和纽曼极有可能同意下面哪个观点?
与中心一致,艺术新闻报道在范围和严肃性方面不可逆转的衰退。
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24. what can be learned about cardus according to the last two paragraphs?
根据最后两段,我们可以获得关于卡达斯的什么信息?
艺术新闻报道在范围和严肃性方面不可逆转的衰退
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总结:21题在前两段,24题在后两段,全文有五段,22、23题在第三段。
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时间对比的题型:过去与现在,中心主旨在现在,表示过去的有used to ,traditional, conventional, old/ early, during the past, in the past ,over the past.
表示比较近的时间单词有:today ,new ,now, no longer , during the past, in the past ,over the past.
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刷题思路:我们采取的是自上而下的逻辑,在最短的时间内猜出文章的中心话题是:艺术新闻报道在范围和严肃性方面不可逆转的衰退。围绕这个中心去处理每个问题。
一句话:围绕中心,自上而下,形散而神不散。
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四、顺藤摸瓜,根据中心:顺藤是顺着题干这根藤,摸到答案。也就是说:根据题干的具体情况和提示信息,利用不同的解题方法回到原文逐一寻找每一道题的准确答案信息来源或依据。答案必须有依据。
1、考研阅读理解的答案不是选出来的,而是比较出来的;
2、反复强调的是重点,重点是考点
3、审题仔细。
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21. it is indicated in paragraphs 1 and 2 that
[a] arts criticism has disappeared from big-city newspapers
[b] english-language newspapers used to carry more arts reviews
[c] high-quality newspapers retain a large body of readers
[d] young readers doubt the suitability of criticism on dailies
第一、二段表明:是推理题。
a.艺术评论已经从大都市的报纸上消失了(文中说的是decline, disappear太绝对)
b.英语报纸过去常刊登更多的艺术评论
c.高品质的报纸能留住大批读者
d.年轻读者怀疑评论文章是否适合刊登在日报上
【葵花宝典】这种题型的方法:“第一、二段表明”,可从一段第一句、最后一句、二段一句、甚至三段第一句去找答案,因三段第一句可能是对一、二段的总结。
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方法一、本文的中心是“艺术新闻报道在范围和严肃性方面不可逆转的衰退”, decline是从好到不好,第一、二段可能表明过去,答案可能是[b] english-language newspapers used to carry more arts reviews,因为used to表示过去的时间密码(code):used to,这是选项的暗示 。
方法二、
【精准定位】第一段指出,英语报纸中艺术报道的范围和严肃性不可遏制的衰落趋势。第二段指出,过去在大多数都市报纸上都能够读到高品质的艺术评论;20世纪出版的重要艺术评论文集里报纸评论占据大半。可见英文报纸过去常刊载更多的艺术评论[b]正确。
【命题解密】
[b] carry more arts reviews概括in most big-city newspapers consisted in large part of newspaper reviews所描绘的曾经情形、且体现 difficult to the point of impossibility to imagine所表明的现在相反状况:曾经报纸上艺术评论数量大、范围广,今日读者简直难以想象这一情景。
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【1段】①of all the changes that have taken place in english-language newspapers during the past quarter-century, perhaps the most far-reaching (原文中省了change) has been the inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage.
在过去25年英文报刊发生的所有变化中,最具深远影响的可能就是其艺术艺术新闻报道在范围和严肃性方面不可逆转的衰退。
【生词助词】
remain=hold=keep
inexorable [?n?eks?r?bl] 不可阻挡的(in不+ex出+ora嘴,说+able……的)
cover [?k?v?(r)] 遮盖; 覆盖;
coveragen.新闻报道; 信息范围; 覆盖范围
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【葵花宝典】时间对比:过去与现在,中心主旨在现在,表示过去的有used to ,traditional, conventional, old/ early, during the past, in the past ,over the past.
表示比较近的时间单词有:today ,new ,now, no longer , during the past, in the past ,over the past.
独句段是中心主旨。
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【生词助词】
decline [d??kla?n]下降;衰退;倾斜;谢绝(de向下+clin倾斜)
coverage [?k?v?r?d?] n.新闻报道
far-reach=profound
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【2段】①it is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most big-city newspapers. ②yet a considerable number of the most significant collections of criticism published in the 20th century consisted in large part of newspaper reviews. ③to read such books today is to marvel at the fact that their learned contents were once deemed suitable for publication in general-circulation dailies.
对40岁以下的普通读者来说,他们很难,甚至无法想象,(21)曾经有一段时期,在大多数大都市的报纸上都可以读到高品质的艺术评论。迄今为止,20世纪出版的大量具有重要意义的评论文集中,大部分是报纸评论。如今再阅读此类文集会让人惊叹这样一个事实:里面这些博大精深的内容曾被认为适合在面向普通读者发行的日报上刊登。
【生词助词】
arrestee [?resti:] 被捕者[-ee被…的人。-er的人。如,employee,雇员(被动);employer雇主(主动)。]
comprehensive [?k?mpr??hens?v] 广泛的; 综合的; 有理解力的(com=with, prehens=size?着。-ive形容词后缀。)
fiscal [?f?skl]财政的;国库的
marvel at对…惊奇; 惊叹;
22. newspaper reviews in england before world war ii were characterized
2010年考研英语阅读真题(一)Text1——刷题思路插图
by
[a] free themes
[b] casual style
[c] elaborate layout
[d] radical viewpoints
【生词助词】
elaborate [??l?b?r?t]? adj.精心制作的;详尽的;煞费苦心的(e=out; labor=labor;-ate后缀)
radical [?r?d?kl] adj.根本的,基本的; 激进的( radic=root,表示)
be characterized by? …的特点在于,…的特点是;
在第二次世界大战之前,英国报纸评论的特点是
a.主题自由
b.风格随意
c.布局精心
d.观点激进题
细节题: 长难句,本题避坑的方法是,对be characterized by,答案去by后面找,不行找修饰主语的成份中找。
方法一、本文的中心是“艺术新闻报道在范围和严肃性方面不可逆转的衰退”,英国报纸评论的特点是在第二次世界大战之前的“艺术新闻报道在范围和严肃性方面不可逆转的衰退”是好的。只有[a] free themes与中心“范围”符合。b.风格随意与“严肃性”矛盾,d.观点激进与中心方向不同,c.布局精心不准确,没有“范围和严肃性”。故[a]为正确项。
方法二、
【精准定位】根据题干中时间关键词 before world war‖迅速定位到第三段首句①we are even farther removed from the unfocused newspaper reviews published in england between the turn of the 20th century and the eve of world war ii。
本句承接上段指出 ,二战前报纸评论涵盖的内容非常广泛包罗万象,难在你不认识unfocuse,你不可能从英英字典中学习,unfocused:not concentrated at one point or upon one objective。选[a]的可能性不大。如果心中没有中心,可能是个睁眼瞎,看不到unfocused、想不到un=not;focuses是焦距,不聚焦。
【命题解密】unfocused一词在文中的含义:构词法un否定前缀+ focused“集中的”; 与[a] free themes意思相近。
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【3段】①we are even farther removed from the unfocused newspaper reviews published in england between the turn of the 20th century and the eve of world war ii, at a time when newsprint was dirt-cheap and stylish arts criticism was considered an ornament to the publications in which it appeared. ②in those far-off days, it was taken for granted that the critics of major papers would write in detail and at length about the events they covered. ③theirs was a serious business, and even those reviewers who wore their learning lightly, like george bernard shaw and ernest newman, could be trusted to know what they were about. ④these men believed in journalism as a calling, and were proud to be published in the daily press. ⑤ “so few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep their own end up in journalism,” newman wrote, “that i am tempted to define ‘journalism’ as ‘a term of contempt applied by writers who are not read to writers who are(省了read学识渊博)’.”
23. which of the following would shaw and newman most probably agree on?
[a] it is writers’ duty to fulfill journalistic goals.
[b] it is contemptible for writers to be journalists.(不可能正确)
[c] writers are likely to be tempted into journalism.
[d] not all writers are capable of journalistic writing.
萧伯纳和纽曼极有可能同意下面哪个观点?
a.作家的责任是实现新闻工作的目标。
b.作家成为记者会让人轻视。
c.作家有可能会被新闻工作所吸引。
d.并非所有作家都能胜任新闻写作。
【解题思路】
本题是观点态度题。
题干关键信息为: shaw and newman。
隐性定位点是:agree on sth,选项abcd与writers有关,
第三段⑤句“so few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep their own end up in journalism,”指出,newman认为“能拥有足够的智慧和文学天赋从事新闻写作的作家很少”, few表示否定,是个重点词汇;又从段中34句“like george bernard shaw and ernest newman”可知shaw和 newman是一伙的,故[d]正确。
【命题解密】[d]同义改写第三段末句。
“so few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep their own end up in journalism,” 直接引用是重点,表达了“newman most probably agree on”, not all与 so few同义, capable概括了 have brains enough or literary gift enough。
【葵花宝典】直接引用的是考点,是救命稻草。
(22)从20世纪初到二战前夕在英国出版的报纸评论内容广泛,与现在更是截然不同。那时,新闻用纸非常便宜,时髦的艺术评论被认为是刊登这种内容的出版物的一种装饰。在那些遥远的岁月里,人们理所当然地认为:主流报纸的评论家们会把他们所报道的事件充分详细地记录下来。他们从事的是一项严肃的事业,人们相信,即使是像乔治·萧伯纳和欧内斯特·纽曼那样不卖弄学识的评论家们,也知道自己在做什么。这些人认为新闻写作是一种使命,并且为自己的作品能够刊登在日报上而感到自豪。(23)“具有足够智慧或文学天赋并最终将新闻写作坚持到底的作家很少,”纽曼写道,“以至于我不禁想把‘新闻工作’定义为‘无人问津的作家对拥有大批读者的作家的蔑称’。”
【生词助词】
be far removed from大相径庭
focus on集中
wear one’s learning lightly,博学而谦逊,用的是比喻(figuratively)
be about忙于,人事
believe in…as…= think… as =regard…as
keep one’s (own) end up坚持到底
24. what can be learned about cardus according to the last two paragraphs?
[a] his music criticism may not appeal to readers today.
[b] his reputation as a music critic has long been in dispute.
[c] his style caters largely to modern specialists.
[d] his writings fail to follow the amateur tradition.
根据最后两段,我们可以获得关于卡达斯的什么信息?
a.他的音乐评论可能不会吸引当今的读者。
b.他作为音乐评论家的声誉一直存在争议。
c.他的风格主要迎合现代专业人士
d.他的作品没有遵循业余传统。
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考的是最后两段的主旨,是与中心主旨一致。
方法一、本文的中心是“艺术新闻报道在范围和严肃性方面不可逆转的衰退”,cardus做例证,证明中心的正确。只有[a] his music criticism may not appeal to readers today.与中心相关。
方法二、本题是推断题,[a] his music criticism may not appeal to readers today.中有may可直接选,正确概率很高;有时间比较的题,有today,a是正确答案。
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方法三、
【精准定位】由题干定位至最后两段,第四段提到: ①unfortunately, these critics are virtually forgotten. ②是例证:neville cardus,作为英国最重要的音乐评论家之一,卡达斯大量作品除了专业人士之外现在已无人知晓。第五段③句进而明确指出,后现代的读者不再需要卡达斯所擅长的华丽散文了。由此可知[a]符合文意。前呼后应。
【命题解密】[a] not appeal to readers today对应末段③journalistic tastes had changed long before his death, and postmodern readers have little use for the richly upholstered vicwardian prose in which he specialized.
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【4段】①unfortunately, these critics are virtually forgotten. ②neville cardus, who wrote for the manchester guardian from 1917 until shortly before his death in 1975, is now known solely as a writer of essays on the game of cricket. ③during his lifetime, though, he was also one of england’s foremost classical-music critics, and a stylist so widely admired that his autobiography (1947) became a best-seller. ④he was knighted in 1967, the first music critic to be so honored. ⑤yet only one of his books is now in print, and his vast body of writings on music is unknown save to specialists.
不幸的是,这些评论家几乎被人遗忘了。内维尔·卡达斯从1917年开始直到1975年去世前不久都在为《曼彻斯特卫报》撰稿,可现在人们只知道他是写板球比赛评论的作家。在他的一生之中,他还是英格兰最著名的古典音乐评论家之一,同时也是一位广受赞誉的文体学家,因而他1947年的《自传》成了本畅销书。1967年他被封为爵士,是第一位获此殊荣的音乐评论家。然而,现在他的书只有一本还未绝版。除了专业人士外,没有人知道他曾写过大量的音乐评论作品。
【单词助词 】
contain [k?n?te?n] (con=with,tain=hold)包含,容纳,容忍。
content[ 满足(ten=hold)
?monetary [?m?n?tri]? adj.货币的(-ary形容词后缀)
creationism [kri?e??n?z?m]n创造宇宙说;创世论;神造说 (-ism …主义,pessimism,悲观主义,optimism 乐观主义。capitalism资本主义)
creationist[[kr?造物主者(-ist? …的人。specialist 专家special特别的,spec是看的词根。)
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【5段】①is there any chance that cardus’s criticism will enjoy a revival? ②the prospect seems remote. ③journalistic tastes had changed long before his death, and postmodern readers have little use for the richly upholstered vicwardian prose in which he specialized. ④moreover, the amateur tradition in music criticism has been in headlong retreat.
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have little use for几乎不需要
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卡达斯的艺术评论是否有机会重新盛行?(24)希望似乎很渺茫。早在他去世之前,新闻业的品位就已发生了变化,后现代的读者几乎不再需要他所擅长的那种辞藻华丽的维多利亚一爱德华时期风格的散文了。此外,音乐评论中业余人士评论的传统也直在走向衰落。
25. what would be the best title for the text?
[a] newspapers of the good old days
[b] the lost horizon in newspapers
?[c] mournful decline of journalism
?[d] prominent critics in memory
文章的最佳标题是什么?
a.往昔美好时代的报纸
b.报纸中消失的视野
c.新闻业令人悲哀的衰落
d.记忆中杰出的评论家
比较法:[a] newspapers of the good old days,喻古讽今,不是中心。[d] prominent critics in memory在文中没出过。
答案只能是bc,其中[b] the lost horizon in newspapers。horizon(欲望、知识或兴趣的)范围,眼界, 眼界喻指“艺术评论”,你可能看不出来,可能看出的是“地平线”
[c] mournful decline of journalism,journalism没在一、二中出现,出现的有newspaper、arts coverage、 arts criticism。只能选b.
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方法一
[a] newspapers of the good old days、[b] the lost horizon in newspapers有交集,[c] mournful decline of journalism报章杂志、新闻业。范围比ab大。又因时间对比的题型考的是现在。答案只能是a.
方法二、
【精准定位】本文开篇直陈主旨:英文报纸艺术报道已“不可遏止”地衰落了。第二、三段追述往昔艺术评论曾盛极一时的情况。最后两段从一位辉煌时期代表评论家的角度再次论证这一趋势,明确复兴前景渺茫的事实。文章通篇都在传达一个信息:艺术评论正逐渐从报纸上消失。[b]为最合适的标题。
【命题解密】[b]以 horizon(欲望、知识或兴趣的)范围,眼界, 眼界喻指“艺术评论”,指向主题词arts coverage ;lost(无法恢复的)则概括了全文陈述的趋势 inexorable decline headlong retreat.
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