2019年考研英语(一)阅读真题祥解Text2——出题的思路(2019年考研英语一翻译答案)缩略图


2019年考研英语(一)阅读真题祥解Text2——出题的思路(2019年考研英语一翻译答案)

2019年考研英语(一)阅读真题祥解text 2——出题的思路
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[第一段]grade inflation——the gradual increase in average gpas (grade-point averages) over the past few decades——is often considered a product of a consumer era in higher education, in which students are treated like customers to be pleased. but another, related force——a policy often buried deep in course catalogs called “grade forgiveness”——is helping raise gpas.
长难句:in which students are treated like customers to be pleased,是非限定性定语从句,修饰?a consumer era。在这个时代,学生被当作顾客来取悦。
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【参考译文】(26)分数膨胀——过去几十年来平均gpa(平均绩点)的逐渐攀升——通常被认为是高等教育消费时代的产物。在这个时代,学生被当作顾客来取悦。但另外一种相关力量——一项通常深藏于课程目录中被称为“成绩宽容”的政策——也在助推gpa的提高。
[第二段]grade forgiveness allows students to retake a course in which they received a low grade, and the most recent grade or the highest grade is the only one that counts in calculating a student’s overall gpa.
(27)?【参考译文】“成绩宽容”政策允许学生重修一门成绩较低的课程,并且,在计算学生的综合gpa时,重要的是只采用他们最近一次成绩或最高的分数.
?[第三段]the use of this little-known practice has accelerated in recent years, as colleges continue to do their utmost to keep students in school (and paying tuition) and improve their graduation rates. when this?practice?first started decades ago, it was usually limited to freshmen, to give them a second chance to take a class in their first year if they struggled in their?transition?to college-level courses.?but now most colleges save for many selective campuses, allow all undergraduates, and even graduate students, to get their low grades forgiven.
?practice: a customary way of operation or behavior;一种习惯的操作方式或行为方式
?transition [tr?n?z??n]n.过渡,转变
save for 除…外
【参考译文】近年来,随着高校一直竭尽全力维持在校学生数量(并让学生支付学费)和提高毕业率,这一鲜为人知的做法日益普及。(27)数十年前,这一做法刚开始实行时,通常仅面向大一新生,如果他们在向大学课程过渡的过程中遇到困难,该做法会给予他们一次在第一学年重修某门课程的机会。不过现在,除了很多重点大学以外,大部分高校都允许所有的本科生,甚至研究生,获得低分.
?[第四段]college officials tend to emphasize that the goal of grade forgiveness is less about the grade itself and more about encouraging students to retake courses critical to their degree program and graduation without incurring a big penalty. “untimely,” said jack miner, ohio state university’s registrar, “we see students achieve more success because they retake a course and do better in subsequent contents or master the content that allows them to graduate on time.”
【参考译文】高校管理人员往往强调,“成绩宽容”的目的不完全在于分数本身,更多的在于鼓励学生重修那些事关学位和毕业的重要课程而免受严重的惩罚。俄亥俄州立大学的教务主任杰克·迈纳说:“最终,我们看到学生取得了更大的成功,因为他们重修了某门课程并在后续学习中表现得更好,或掌握了能让他们按时毕业的课程内容。
?[第五段]that said, there is a way in which grade forgiveness satisfies colleges’ own needs as well. for?public institutions, state funds are sometimes tied partly to their success on metrics such as graduation rates and student retention—so better grades can, by boosting figures like those, mean more money. and anything that raises gpas will likely make students—who, at the end of the day, are paying the bill—feel they’ve gotten a better value for their tuition dollars, which is another big concern for colleges.
满足了高校自身的需要。对公立机构而言,国家拨款有时部分取决于它们在诸如毕业率和学生保留率等指标上的良好表现——(28)因此成绩越好,就越能提升上述指标也意味着能获得更多拨款。而且,任何有助于提高gpa的举措,都有可能让最终掏腰包的学生感到他们的学费花得更有价值,而这也是高校关心的另一个重要问题。?
[第六段]indeed, grade forgiveness is just another way that universities are responding to consumers’ expectations for higher education. since students and parents expect a college degree to lead a job, it is in the best interest of a school to turn out graduates who are as qualified as possible—or at least appear to be. on this, students’ and colleges’ incentives seem to be aligned.
事实上,“成绩宽容”只不过是高校回应消费者对高等教育期望的另一种方式。(29)既然学生和家长都希望大学文凭能带来一份工作,那么培养出尽可能合格的毕业生,或者至少看起来合格的毕业生,对学校是最有利的。在这一点上,学生和高校的动机似乎是一致的。
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一、数一数全文一共由几个段落组成
二、听懂人话(审题,看出题人问了你什么?文章的中心是什么,结构是什么?特别首先仔细审阅最后一道题目),这是自上而下的逻辑,从出题人的角度来看问题,一切都好说。
26.?what is commonly regarded as the cause of grade inflation?(因果)
【题干】:一般认为造成分数膨胀的原因是什么?
【出题思路】:看到这个题干,你是否看到,本文是在深挖造成分数膨胀的原因。
27. what was the original purpose of grade forgiveness?
【题干】:成绩宽容的初衷是什么?(动机)
【出题思路】:这里用过去时,而整篇用的是现在时,本题不防用时态定位可能更快、更准确。
28.?according to paragraph 5,grade forgiveness?enable colleges to____.(细节)
【题干】:由第五段可知,“成绩宽容”能使高校怎么?
【出题思路】:(无利不起早),grade forgiveness在题干中反复出现,是主题,是老大。
经验:28题直接定位于第五段,中间跳了二段,这里注意有两种错误的方法:1、把3、4段每段都从头到尾地仔细看,太浪费时间。2、直接跳到第五段,这样不能把握整体,易出错。
正确的方法是不跳段,对没有被定位的段的处理是:段首句要看,保持文章的连续。被定位的段首先看段的中心句,一般在段落的开头一句,然后再看定位点所在的句子,及前后句,甚至是下一段的首句,上一段的中心句等。所选答案一定要和中心一致。
29.?what does the phrase “to be aligned”(line 5, para.6) most probably?mean?
【题干】:“ to be aligned”(第六段第五行)这一短语最有可能的意思是什么?
【出题思路】:尽管是词义推断题,但也不是毫无目标的,是与中心相关的,“to be aligned”的意思可能从另一方面来阐释grade forgiveness的原因,与grade forgiveness利害相关的是学生,可能是给学生的好处,与学校同流合污罢了。
align?[??la?n] v.与…联合,结盟; 对准,校直(a=to ;lign=?line)
助记:用线绑在一起,是结盟;木工用线是对准,校准。
?mean?v.意思是; 打算;adj.吝啬的; 刻薄的; ?但吝啬鬼是miser。
30.?the author examines the practice?of grade forgiveness?by____.(变形的主旨题)
【题干】:(作者通过什么研究了“成绩宽恕”的方法。)
a.?assessing
2019年考研英语(一)阅读真题祥解Text2——出题的思路(2019年考研英语一翻译答案)插图
its feasibility(评估其可行性)
b.?analyzing the causes behind it(分析其背后的原因)
c.?comparing different views on it(比较关于它的不同观点)
d.?listing its long-run effects(列举其长远影响)
【出题思路】:由26.?what is commonly regarded as the cause of grade inflation?看到,本文的写法是深挖the cause of grade inflation的原因,grade forgiveness=grade inflation。
examine[?ɡ?z?m?n] ?to consider or study an idea, a subject, etc. very carefully
practice:way of doing sth.?做法
从题干可归纳本文的内容:
这是围绕成绩宽容这个话题展开的,the cause of grade inflation的原因,成绩宽容的初衷,学校对它的态度等进行讨论。答案:b.
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三、跟着老大(中心grade forgiveness),顺藤(相关的提示信息)摸瓜(找答案),采用的自上而下的逻辑,从中心出发;中心决定细节。
26.??what is commonly regarded as?the cause of grade inflation?一般认为造成分数膨胀的原因是什么?
a. the change of course catalogs.课程目录的变更。
b. students’ indifference to gpas.学生对gpa的漠视。
c. colleges’ neglect of gpas.高校对学生gpa的忽视。
d. the influence of consumer culture.消费文化的影响
解析:题干关键信息为: grade inflation。首先回到第一段第一句。is often considered(as)与is commonly regarded as是同义转述。该句提到,分数膨胀通常被认为是高等教育消费时代的产物,在这个时代,学生被当作顾客来取悦。可见,分数膨胀是消费文化影响的结果,故d选项正确。
keys:
同义替换词:be regarded as?被认为,被看作;be considered (as); hold
often= commonly ;be regarded as=be considered (as)
[第一段]grade inflation——he gradual increase in average gpas (grade-point averages) over the past few decades——is often considered?a product of?a consumer era?in higher education,?in which students are treated like customers to be pleased. but(表递进)?another, related force—a policy often buried deep in course catalogs called “grade forgiveness”—is helping raise gpas.
长难句:in which students are treated like customers to be pleased,是非限定性定语从句,修饰?a consumer era。在这个时代,学生被当作顾客来取悦。
【经验积累】1、对因果判断题,答案往往在but后,这里为什么不是?
答:对26.what is commonly regarded as?the cause of grade inflation?中is commonly regarded as与原文中的“is often considered”是同意替换,答案只能是a product of a consumer era in higher education。再者,这里的but表示的是递进,而非转折,要具体分析。
2、对推理判断题,在but表示转折时,答案往往在but后。但要具体分析,忌讳刻舟求剑.2019年的text1第21题答案在yet前,这就是出题人的思路,考的是内容而非形式。
【参考译文】(26)分数膨胀——过去几十年来平均gpa(平均绩点)的逐渐攀升——通常被认为是高等教育消费时代的产物。在这个时代,学生被当作顾客来取悦。但另外一种相关力量——一项通常深藏于课程目录中被称为“成绩宽容”的政策——也在助推gpa的提高。
?[第二段]grade forgiveness allows students to retake a course in which they received a low grade, and the most recent grade or the highest grade is the only one that counts?in calculating a student’s overall gpa.
count [ka?nt]v.数数; 计算总数; 重要
(28)?【参考译文】“成绩宽容”政策允许学生重修一门成绩较低的课程,并且,在计算学生的综合gpa时,重要的是只采用他们最近一次成绩或最高的分数.
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27.?what was the original?purpose of grade forgiveness?
(细节)成绩宽容”的初衷是什么?
a.?to help freshmen adapt to college learning.. 助大一新生适应大学的学习。
b.?to maintain colleges’ graduation rates.维持大学毕业率。
c.?to prepare graduates for a challenging future.让毕业生为迎接充满挑战的未来做好准备。
d.?to increase universities’ income from tuition.增加大学的学费收入。
解析:题干是过去时,一定要找到时态相一致的,定位于三段二句。三段前两句中提到了?this little-known practice(这一鲜为人知的做法),由此仍无法得知其指代对象,故还需继续联系上文;二段提到,“成绩宽容”政策允许学生重修一门成绩较低的课程。由此可知,三段前两句中提到的 this little-known practice和 this practice都指代“成绩宽容”。综上可推知,“成绩宽容”开始时只针对大一新生,这一做法旨在 助他们适应大学的学习,故a选项正确。
经验: 指代词it ,they,是答案的定位点。指代的是第二,或更多次出现,是重点。
?[第三段]the use of this little-known practice has accelerated in recent years, as colleges continue to do their utmost to keep students in school (and paying tuition) and improve their graduation rates. when this practice first started decades ago, it was usually limited to freshmen, to give them a second chance to take a class in their first year if they struggled in their transition to college-level courses.?but now most colleges save for?many selective campuses, allow all undergraduates, and even graduate students, to get their low grades forgiven.
【参考译文】近年来,随着高校一直竭尽全力维持在校学生数量(并让学生支付学费)和提高毕业率,这一鲜为人知的做法日益普及。(27)数十年前,这一做法刚开始实行时,通常仅面向大一新生,如果他们在向大学课程过渡的过程中遇到困难,该做法会给予他们一次在第一学年重修某门课程的机会。不过现在,除了很多重点大学以外,大部分高校都允许所有的本科生,甚至研究生,获得低分.
key words :accelerate[?k?sel?re?t]v.(使)加速,加快;(ac=to;celer=quick;-ate后缀)
save for节省; 除…外;
be limited to被限制在…上; 限于
struggle[?str?ɡl] 指为克服困难或阻力所作的努力,也指因决心、意志或干劲而产生的极大努力。
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?[第四段]college officials tend to emphasize that the goal of grade forgiveness is less about the grade itself and more about encouraging students to retake courses critical?to their degree program and graduation without incurring a big?penalty. “untimely,” said jack miner, ohio state university’s registrar, “we see students achieve more success because they retake a course and do better in subsequent contents or master the content that allows them to graduate on time.”
【参考译文】高校管理人员往往强调,“成绩宽容”的目的不完全在于分数本身,更多的在于鼓励学生重修那些事关学位和毕业的重要课程而免受严重的惩罚。俄亥俄州立大学的教务主任杰克·迈纳说:“最终,我们看到学生取得了更大的成功,因为他们重修了某门课程并在后续学习中表现得更好,或掌握了能让他们按时毕业的课程内容。
tend to?朝某方向; 趋向
critical?[?kr?t?kl] 关键的; (病情或局势)严重的; 批评的;(crit判断,分辨,评判+ical……的)
incur [?n?k?:(r)] vt.招致,引起;(in=into;cur=to run.)(走入灾祸之中)
occur[??k?:(r)] vi.发生; 出现; 闪现(occ=to;cur=to run)(这就跑了出来)
recur[r??k?:(r)] vi.再发生; 复发; 重现(re=again;cur=to run)
penalty [?pen?lti] n.惩罚; 刑罚(pen同pain 痛))
registrar[?red???strɑ:(r)]登记员; 教务主任(register= record+ar人)
28. according to paragraph 5,grade forgiveness enable colleges to____.
a.?obtain more financial support
b.?boost their student enrollments
c.?improve their teaching quality
d.?meet local governments’ needs
由第五段可知,“成绩宽容”能使高校
a.获得更多财政资助
b.增加学生入学人数
c.提高教学质量
d.满足地方政府的需求
经验:四个风马牛不相及的选项,只要文中有粘边的便是答案。funds,mean more money与钱有关。答案:a.?obtain more financial support。
for public institutions, state funds (基金)are sometimes tied partly to their success on metrics such as graduation rates and student retention,这一句一时看不明白,那就看破折号后的:——so better grades can, by boosting figures like those, mean more money。
?
?[第五段]that said, there is a way in which grade forgiveness?satisfies colleges’ own needs as well. for public institutions, state funds?(基金)are sometimes tied partly to their success on metrics?such as graduation rates and student retention——so better grades can, by boosting figures like those, mean more money.?and anything that raises gpas will likely make students—who, at the end of the day, are paying the bill—feel they’ve gotten a better value for their tuition dollars, which is another big concern for colleges.
满足了高校自身的需要。对公立机构而言,国家拨款有时部分取决于它们在诸如毕业率和学生保留率等量化指标上的良好表现——(28)因此成绩越好,就越能提升上述量化指标也意味着能获得更多拨款。而且,任何有助于提高gpa的举措,都有可能让最终掏腰包的学生感到他们的学费花得更有价值,而这也是高校关心的另一个重要问题。
as well表明与第四段是并列关系。
be tied to 束缚于,捆绑于; 以 … 为条件;(实际表示因果)
metric[metr?k]adj.米制的,公制的,度dù 量的; 距离的;n.一种便于量化某些特定特征的相关措施系统
单词助词:metre [?mi?t?(r)]?n.米,公尺; 格律,韵律
相近词:metro地下铁道; metropolitan[?metr??p?l?t?n] adj.大都会的
underground 一般用词,指城市中的地铁,主要用于英国。
subway 指城市中的地铁或通道,主要用于美国。
metro地下铁道,法国。
retention [r??ten?n]?保留; 记忆力,保持力(re=again;tain=hold)
boost[bu?st]
29. what does the phrase “to be aligned”(line 5, para.6) most probably mean?有可能的意思是什么?(生词词义)
a.?to counterbalance each other.互相制衡
b.?to complement each other.彼此互补
c.?to be identical with each other.彼此一致
d.?to be contradictory to each other.相互矛盾
从问的角度如何得到正解。根据自上而下的逻辑,得出答案。本段的中心句“事实上,“成绩宽容”只不过是高校回应消费者对高等教育期望的另一种方式”,既然学生和家长都希望大学文凭能带来一份工作,有买有卖,他们一拍即合,同流合污。答案是c.?to be identical with each other.彼此一致
?
?[第六段]indeed, grade forgiveness is just another way that universities are responding to consumers’ expectations for higher education. since students and parents expect a college degree to lead a job,?it is in the best interest of a school to turn out graduates who are as qualified as possible—or at least appear to be.?on this, students’ and colleges’ incentives seem to be aligned.
align?[??la?n] v.与…联合,结盟; 对准,校直;( a=to;lign= line)
incentive [?n?sent?v]n.动机; 刺激;(in=into;cent唱歌+ive……的→把精神唱进去)?同义词:motive; intention,cause
事实上,“成绩宽容”只不过是高校回应消费者对高等教育期望的另一种方式。(29)既然学生和家长都希望大学文凭能带来一份工作,那么培养出尽可能合格的毕业生,或者至少看起来合格的毕业生,对学校是最有利的。在这一点上,学生和高校的动机似乎是一致的。
26.?what is commonly regarded as the cause of grade inflation?
a. the change of course catalogs.
b. students’ indifference to gpas.
c. colleges’ neglect of gpas.
d. the influence of consumer culture.
一般认为造成分数膨胀的原因是什么?
a.课程目录的变更。
b.学生对gpa的漠视。
c.高校对学生gpa的忽视。
d.消费文化的影响。
?
27. what was the original purpose of grade forgiveness?
a.?to help freshmen adapt to college learning.
b.?to maintain colleges’ graduation rates.
c.?to prepare graduates for a challenging future.
d.?to increase universities’ income from tuition.
成绩宽容”的初衷是什么?
a. 助大一新生适应大学的学习。
b.维持大学毕业率。
c.让毕业生为迎接充满挑战的未来做好准备。
d.增加大学的学费收入。
?
28. according to paragraph 5,grade forgiveness enable colleges to____.
a.?obtain more financial support
b.?boost their student enrollments
c.?improve their teaching quality
d.?meet local governments’ needs
由第五段可知,“成绩宽容”能使高校
a.获得更多财政资助
b.增加学生入学人数
c.提高教学质量
d.满足地方政府的需求
?
29. what does the phrase “to be aligned”(line 5, para.6) most probably mean?
a.?to counterbalance each other.
b.?to complement each other.
c.?to be identical with each other.
d.?to be contradictory to each other.
“ to be aligned”(第六段第五行)这一短语最
有可能的意思是什么?
a.互相制衡
b.彼此互补
c.彼此一致
d.相互矛盾
?
30. the author examines the practice of grade forgiveness by____.(文章的文法)
a.?assessing its feasibility
b.?analyzing the causes behind it
c.?comparing different views on it
d.?listing its long-run effects
作者通过探讨了“成绩宽容”政策。
a.评估其可行性
b.分析其背后的原因
c.比较关于它的不同观点
d.列举其长远影响
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