#考研政治#找不到历年真题缺时政信息…来自 考研教育…缩略图

#考研政治#找不到历年真题缺时政信息…来自 考研教育…






section1 use of english

directions: rend the following
fart choose the best word for each numbered blank and mark a, b, ?c, or d on the answersheet.(10 points)

the idea that plant have some
degree of consciousness first took root in the early 2000s; the term “plant neurobiolog”
was ???1?? ?around
the notion that some aspects of plant behavior could be?? 2?? to
intelligence in animals. ???3?? plants lack brains, the firing of electrical
signals in their stems and leaves nonetheless triggered responses that ??4?? ?consciousness, researchers previously

but such an idea is untrue,
according to a new opinion article. plant biology is complex and fascinating, but
it ??5?? so greatly from that of animals that
so-called ??6?? of plants’ intelligence is inconclusive,
the authors wrote.

beginning in 2006, some
scientists have?? 7?? that plants possess neuron-like cells
that interact with hormones and transmitters, ???8?? “a
plant nervous system, ??9?? to that in animals,” said lead stud
author lincoin tair, “tbey ??10? ?claimed
that plants have “brain-like command centers” at their root tips.”

this ???11? ?makes sense if you simplify the workings of a
complex brain, ??12?? it to an array of electrical pulses; cells
in plants also communicate through electrical signals.?? 13?? the
signaling in plants only ???14?? similar to the firing in a complex
animal brain, which is more than “a mass of cells that communicate by electricity,”
taiz sad

“for consciousness to evolve,
a brain with a threshold?? 15? _of complexity and capacity is required.”
he?? 16?? .”since plants don’t have nervous systems,
the ??17? ?that
the have consciousness are effectively zero”

and what’s so great about consciousness,
anyway? plants can’t run away from ???18?? , so investing energy in a body system
which ??19?? threat and can feel pain would be a very?? 20??
evolutionary strategy, according to the article.

1.[a] coined [b] discovered [c]collected [d]

2.[a] attributed [b]directed [c]compared [d]confined

3.[a] unless [b] when [c]once [d] though

4.[a] coped with [b] consisted
of [c]hinted at [d]

5. [a] suffers [b]benefits [c]develops

6.[a] acceptance [b] evidence [c]cultivation
[d] creation

7. [a]doubled [b]denied [c] argued [d] requested

8.[a] adapting [b] forming [c]repairing
[d] testing

9. [a]analogous [b] essential [c]suitable [d]

10. [a] just [b] ever [c]
still [d] even

11. [a] restriction [b]
experiment [g] perspective
[d] demand

12. [a] attaching [b]reducing [c] returning
[d] exposing

13, [a] however [b] moreover [c] therefore [d]

14. [a] temporarily [b]
literally [c]
superficially [d] imaginarily

15. [a] list [b]level [c] label [d]

16. [a] recalled [b] agreed
[c] questioned [d] added

17. [a] chances [b] risks [c] excuses [d]

18. [a] danger [b] failure [c] warning [d]

19. [a] represents [b]
includes [c] reveals [d]

20[a] humble [b] poor [c] practical
[d] easy


section ii reading

part a directions:

read the following four texts.
answer the questions below each text by choosing a.b.c or d.mark your answers
on the answer sheet.(40points)



people often complain that
plastics are too durable. water bottles, shopping bags, and other trash litter
the planet, from mount everest to the mariana trench, because plastics are
everywhere and don’t break down easly. but some plastic materials change over
time. they crack and frizzle. they “weep” out additives. they melt into
sludge. all of which creates huge headaches for institutions, such as museums.
trying to preserve culturally important objects. the variety of plastic objects
at risk is dizzying early radios, avant-garde sculptures, celluloid animation
stills from disney films, the first artificial heart.

certain artifacts are
especially vulnerable because some pioneers in plastic art didn’t always know
how to mix ingredients properly, says thea van oosten, a polymer chemist who,
until retiring a few years ago worked for decades at the cultural heritage
agency of the netherlands. “it’s like baking a cake: if you don’t have
exact amounts, it goes wrong.” she says. “the object you make is
already a time bomb.”

and sometimes, it’s not the
artists fault in the 1960s, the italian artist picro gilardi began to create
hundreds of bright colorful foam pieces. those pieces included small beds of
roses and other items as well as a few dozen “nature carpets large
rectangles decorated with foam pumpkins, cabbages. and watermelons. he wanted
viewers to walk around on the carpets-which meant they had to be durable.

unfortunately, the
polyurethane foam he used is inherently unstable, it’s especially vulnerable to
light damage, and by the mid-1990s, gilardi’s pumpkins, roses and other figures
were splitting and crumbling museums locked some of them away in the dark.

sovan oosten and her
colleagues worked to preserve gilardi’s sculptures. they infused some with
stabilizing and consolidating chemicals. oosten calls those chemicals “sunsreens”
because the goal was to prevent further light damage and rebuild worn polymer fibers.
she is proud that several sculptures have even gone on display again, albeit
sometimes beneath protective cases.

despite success stories like
van oosten’s, preservation of plastics will likely get harder. old objects continue
to deteriorate. worse, biodegradable plastics designed to disintegrate, are increasingly

and more is at stake here than
individual objects. joana lia ferrein, an assistant professor of conservation
and restoration ?of the nova school of
science and technology notes that archaeologists first defined the great material
ages of human history-stone age, iron age, and so on-after examining artifacts
it museums. we now live in an age of plastic, she says, “and what we decide
to collect today, what we decide to preserve … will have a strong impact on how
in the future we’ll be seen.”


21.according to paragraph 1,
museums are faced with difficulties in.

[a] maintaining their plastic items.

[b]obtaining durable plastic artifacts

[c] handling outdated plastic

[d] classifying their plastic

22.van oosten believes that
certain plastic objects are

[a] immune to decay.

[b] improperly shaped

[c]inherently flawed.

[d]complex in structure.

23.museums stopped exhibiting
some of gilardi’s artworks’ to_

[a] keep them from hurting visitors

[b] duplicating them for future

[c] have their ingredients

[d] prevent them from further damage.

24. the author thinks that preservation
of plastics is

[a] costly.

[8] unworthy



25.in ferena’s opinion, preservation
of plastic artifacts

[a]will inspire future
scientific research

[b]has profound historical significance.

[c] will help us separate the
material ages.

[d] has an impact on today’s
cultural life



as the latest crop of students
pen their undergraduate application form and weigh up their options, it may be
worth considering just how the point, purpose and value of a degree has changed
and what generation z need to consider as they start the third stage of their
educational journey.

millennials were told that if
you did well in school, got a decent degree, you would be set up for life. but
that promise has been found wanting. as degrees became universal, they became
devalued. education was no longer a secure route of social mobility. today 28
per cent of graduates in the uk are in non-graduate roles, a percentage which
is double the average among oecd countries.

this is not to say that there
is no point in getting a degree, but rather stress that a degree is not for
everyone, that the switch from classroom to lecture hall is not an inevitable
one and that other options are available.

thankfully, there are signs
that this is already happening. with generation z seeking to learn from their millennial
predecessors, even if parents and teachers tend to be still set in the degree
mindset employers have long seen the advantages of hiring school leavers who
often prove themselves to be more committed and loyal employees than graduates.
many too are seeing the advantages of scrapping a degree requirement for
certain roles.

for those for whom a degree is
the desired route, consider that this may well be the first of many. in this
age of generalists, it pays to have specific knowledge or skills. postgraduates
now earn 40 per cent more than graduates. when more and more of us have a
degree, it makes sense to have two.

it is unlikely that generation
z will be done with education at 18 or 21 they will need to be constantly
up-skilling throughout their career to stay employable. it has been estimated
that this generation, due to the pressures of technology, the wish for personal
fulfilment and desire for diversity, will work for 17 different employers over
the course of their working life and have five different careers. education,
and not just knowledge gained on campus, will be a core part of generation z’s
career trajectory.

older generations often talk about
their degrees in the present and personal tense: i am a geographer on t am a
classist. their sons or daughters would never say such a thing; it’s as if they
already know that their degree won’t define them in the same way.

26.the author suggests that
generation z should

a.be careful in choosing a

b.be diligent at each
educational stage

c. reassess the necessity of college education

d. postpone their
undergraduate application

27.the percentage of uk
graduates in non-graduate roles reflect

a. millennial’s opinions about

b. the shrinking value of a degree

c. public discontent with

d. the desired route of social

28. the author considers it a
good sign that

a. generation z are seeking to
earn a decent degree

b. school leavers are willing
to be skilled workers.

c. employers are taking a realistic attitude to degrees

d. parents are changing their
minds about education.

29.it is advised in paragraph
5 that those with one degree should

a. make an early decision on
their career

b. attend on the job training

c. team up with high-paid

d. further their studies in a specific field

30.what can be concluded about
generation z from the last two paragraphs?

a. lifelong learning will define them

b. they will make qualified

c. degrees will no longer
appeal them

d. they will have a limited
choice of jobs.

text 3

enlightening, challenging, stimulating,
fun. these were some of the words that nature readers used to describe their
experience of art-science collaborations in a series of articles on
partnerships between artists and researchers. nearly 40% of the roughly 350
people who responded to an accompanying poll said, they had collaborated with
artists, and almost all said they would consider doing so in future.

such an encouraging results is
not surprising. scientists are increasingly seeking out visual artists to help
them communicate their work to new audiences. “artists help scientists
reach a broader audience a
#考研政治#找不到历年真题缺时政信息…来自 考研教育…插图
nd make emotional connections that enhance
learning.” one respondent said.

one example of how artists and
scientists have together rocked the scenes came last month when the sydney symphony
orchestra performed a reworked version of antonio vivaldi’s the four seasons.
they reimagined the 300-year-old score by injecting the latest climate
prediction data for each season-provided by monash university’s climate change
communication research hub. the performance was a creative call to action ahead
of november’s united nations climate change conference in glasgow, uk.

but a genuine partnership must
be a two-way street. fewer artist than scientists responded to the nature poll,
however, several respondents noted that artists do not simply assist scientists
with their communication requirements. nor should their work be considered only
as an object of study. the alliances are most valuable when scientists and
artists have a shared stake in a project, are able to jointly design it and can
critique each other’s work. such an approach can both prompt new research as
well as result in powerful art.

more than half a century ago,
the massachusetts institute of technology opened its center for advanced visual
studies (cavs) to explore the role of technology in culture. the founders
deliberately focused their projects around light-hance the “visual
studies” in the name. light was a something that both artists and
scientists had an interest in and therefore could form the basis of
collaboration. as science and technology progressed, and divided into more
sub-disciplines, the centre was simultaneously looking to a time when leading
researchers could also be artists, writers and poets, and vice versa.

nature’s poll findings suggest
that this trend is as strong as ever, but, to make a collaboration work both
sides need to invest time, and embrace surprise and challenge. the reach of
art-science tie-ups needs to go beyond the necessary purpose of research
communication, and participants. artists and scientists alike are immersed in
discovery and invention, and challenge and critique are core to both, too.

31. according to paragraph 1,
art-science collaborations have___

[a]caught the attention of

[b] received favorable responses

[c] promoted academic

[d] sparked heated public

32.the reworked version of the
four seasons is mentioned to show that

[a]art can offer audiences easy access to science

[b] science can help with the
expression of emotions

[c] public participation in
science has a promising future

[d]art is effective in
facilitating scientific innovations

33.some artists seem to worry
about in the art-science partnership

[a] their role may be underestimated

[b] their reputation may be

[c] their creativity may be

[d] their work may be

34.what does the author say
about cavs?

[a]it was headed alternately
by artists and scientists

[b] it exemplified valuable art-science alliances

[c] its projects aimed at
advancing visual studies。

[d] its founders sought to
raise the status of artists

35.in the last paragraph, the
author holds that art-science collaborations

[a]are likely to go beyond
public expectations

[b] will intensify
interdisciplinary competition

[c] should do more than communicating science

d]are becoming more popular
than before


text 4

the personal grievance
provisions of new zealand’s employment relations act 2000(era)prevent an
employer from firing an employee without good cause. instead, dismissals must
be justified. employers must both show cause and act in a procedurally fair

personal grievance procedures
were designed to guard the jobs of ordinary workers from “unjustified
dismissals”. the premise was that the common law of contract lacked
sufficient safeguards for workers against arbitrary conduct by management long
gone are the days when a boss could simply give an employee contractual notice.

but these provisions create
difficulties for businesses when applied to highly paid managers and
executives. as countless boards and business owners will attest, constraining
firms from firing poorly performing, high-earning managers is a handbrake on
boosting productivity and overall performance. the difference between c-grade
and a-grade managers may very well be the difference between business success
or failure. between preserving the jobs of ordinary workers or losing them. yet
mediocrity is no longer enough to justify a dismissal.

paradoxically-laws introduced to protect the jobs of ordinary workers may be
placing those jobs at risk.

if not placing jobs at risk,
to the extent employment protection laws constrain business owners from
dismissing under-performing managers, those laws act as a constraint on firm
productivity and therefore on workers’ wages. indeed, in” an international
perspective on new zealand’s productivity paradox” (2014): the productivity
commission singled out the low quality of managerial capabilities as a cause of
the country’s poor productivity growth record.

nor are highly paid managers
themselves immune from the harm caused by the era’s unjustified dismissal
procedures. because employment protection laws make it costlier to fire an
employee, employers are more cautious about hiring new staff this makes it
harder for the marginal manager to gain employment. and firms pay staff less
because firms carry the burden of the employment arrangement going wrong

society also suffers from
excessive employment protections. stringent job dismissal regulations adversely
affect productivity growth and hamper both prosperity and overall well-being.

across the tasman sea, australia
deals with the unjustified dismissal paradox by excluding employees earning
above a specified “high-income threshold” from the protection of its
unfair dismissal laws. in new zealand, a 2016 private members’ bill aimed to permit
firms and high-income employees to contract out of the unjustified dismissal
regime. however, the mechanisms proposed were unwieldy and the bill was voted
down following the change in government later that year.

36.the personal grievance
provisions of the era are intended to

[a]punish dubious corporate

[b]improve traditional hiring

[c]exempt employers from
certain duties

[d]protect the rights of ordinary workers

37.it can be learned from
paragraph 3 that the provisions may

[a]hinder business development

[b]undermine managers’ authority

[c]affect the public image of
the firms

[d]worsen labor-management

38.which of the following
measures would be the productivity commission support?

[a]imposing reasonable wage

[b]enforcing employment
protection laws.

[c]limiting the powers of
business owners.

[d]dismissing poorly performing managers.

39.what might be an effect of
era’s unjustified dismissal procedures?

[a] highly paid managers lose
their jobs.

[b] employees suffer from salary cuts.

[c] society sees a rise in
overall well-being.

[d] employers need to hire new

40. it can be inferred that
the “high-income threshold” in australia

[a] has secured managers’

[b] has produced undesired

[c] is beneficial to business

[d] is difficult to put into practice


part b


directions:in the following text,some sentences have been removed. for questions 41-45,choose the most suitable one from the fist a-g to fit into each of
the numbered blanks. there are two extra choices,which
do not fit in any of the gaps. mark your answers on answer sheet.(10 points)——7选5


(41) teri byrd

?i was a zoo and wildlife park employee for
years. both the wildlife park and zoo claimed to be operating for the benefit
of the animals and for conservation purposes. this claim was false.

neither one of them actually
participated in any contributions whose bottom line is much more important than
the condition of the animals.

animals despise being captives
in zoos. no matter how you “enhance” enclosures, they do not allow for
freedom, a natural diet or adequate time for transparency with these
institutions. and it’s past time to eliminate zoos from our culture.


(42) karen r. sime

as a zoology professor, i
agree with emma marris that zoo displays can be sad and cruel. but she
underestimates the educational value of zoos.

the zoology program at my
university attracts students for whom zoo visits were the crucial formative
experience that led them to major in biological sciences. these are mostly
students who had no opportunity as children to travel to wilderness areas,
wildlife refuges or national parks. although good tv shows can help stir
children’s interest in conservation, they cannot replace the excitement of a
zoo visit as an intense, immersive and interactive experience. surely there
must be some middle ground that balances zoos’ treatment of animals with their
educational potential.


(43) greg newberry

emma marris’s article is an
insult and a disservice to the thousands of passionate who work tirelessly to
improve the lives of animals and protect our planet. she uses outdated research
and decades-old examples to undermine the noble mission of organization
committed to connecting children to a world beyond their own.

zoos are at the forefront of
conservation and constantly evolving to improve how they care for animals and
protect each species in its natural habitat. are there tragedies? of course.
but they are the exception not the norm that ms. marris implies. a distressed
animal in a zoo will get as good or better treatment than most of us at our
local hospital


(44) dean gallea

as a fellow environmentalist
animal-protection advocate and longtime vegetarian. i could properly be in the
same camp as emma marris on the issue of zoos. but i believe that well-run zoos
and the heroic animals that suffer their captivity so serve a higher purpose.
were it not for opportunities to observe these beautiful wild creatures close
to home many more people would be driven by their fascination to travel to wild
areas to seek out disturb and even hunt them down.

zoos are in that sense similar
to natural history and archeology museums serving to satisfy our need for
contact with these living creatures while leaving the vast majority undisturbed
in their natural environments.


(45) john fraser

emma marris selectively
describes and misrepresents the findings of our research. our studies focused
on the impact of zoo experiences on how people think about themselves and
nature and the data points extracted from our studies.

zoos are tools for thinking.
our research provides strong support for the value of zoos in connecting people
with animals and with nature. zoos provide a critical voice for conservation
and environmental protection. they afford an opportunity for people from all
backgrounds to encounter a range of animals from drone bees to springbok or
salmon to better understand the natural world we live in.


a. zoos which spare no effort
to take care of animals should not be subjected to unfair criticism.

b. to pressure zoos to spend
less on their animals would lead to inhumane outcomes for the precious
creatures in their care.

c. while animals in captivity
deserve sympathy, zoos play a significant role in starting young people down
the path of related sciences.

d. zoos save people trips to
wilderness areas and thus contribute to wildlife conservation.

e. for wild animals that
cannot be returned to their natural habitats, zoos offer the best alternative.
f. zoos should have been closed down as they prioritize money making over
animals’ wellbeing.

g. marris distorts our
findings which actually prove that zoos serve as an indispensable link between
man and nature.


41. f???? 42. c??? 43.a??????
44.d??????? 45. g


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